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WHAT IS? ARCHITECTURAL

What is Chephren Pyramid?

What is Chephren Pyramid?

The Pyramid

The pharaoh had his pyramid built next to his father's. Built on a slightly higher plateau, it looks bigger than the Pyramid of Cheops. In order for the foundation to become level, it was necessary to excavate the rocky ground 10 m deep on one side. On the other side, the floor had to be raised.

Again, the disguise was largely removed by robbery. The inclination angle is 53 degrees, the side length 215 m. The building is 143 m high. The pyramid was also intended as a "harbor" for religious reasons. The dead pharaoh was to travel from here to the afterlife. The terrace in the east has piers, near which are five dugouts. The side pyramid can only be seen on the foundation walls.

In the Pyramid

The pyramid has two entrances on the north side, the first one starts at a height of 11 meters, the second one is at ground level. From here passages descend into the building. The lower passage leads to a chamber whose purpose is unknown. It is assumed that sacrifices should be made here. The corridor then rises again and meets the passage leading down from the higher entrance. Both unified corridors lead to the burial chamber. The sarcophagus is made of granite and is slightly embedded in the ground. The mummy was not found.

The Mortuary Temple

From the mortuary temple leads the way to the Valley Temple and the Sphinx. He is taller than his predecessors. It consists of several chambers and an entrance hall. At the end of the various passages large statues are said to have stood. Although none were found, the construction of oversized statues began at that time. A courtyard was surrounded by large columns. Beside the mortuary temple one found five ship pits in the rock reason. The building became a model for other mortuary temples.

Valley Temple

The temple has been relatively well preserved. At the foundations were found remains of a quay, which must have been located on a corridor or canal. The floor is made of alabaster, the walls of rose granite. There are u.a. an entrance chamber and a large hall. The roof was supported by pillars, some of them still preserved today. On the walls were 24 Chephren statues.

The Sphinx

At the bottom of the roadway is the sphinx. The 20 m high lion shape with the human head was knocked out of the rock bottom. The stone blocks for the spinx and valley temples were also taken for this reason.

The figure of the lion symbolized in this time the sun as well as the royal dignity. The figure became the model for countless imitations of the next 2500 years.

Unlike his imitations, the lion's body of the sphinx is too large. It is believed that the builders extended the body to bridge a faulty layer of rock. The rock layers of the sphinx come from different geological eras, so the figure has been preserved in different ways. The well-preserved head is made of hard rock, the body of soft stone, the feet of hard sand and coral reef.

In front of the Sphinx is the Sphinx Temple. It is unknown what purpose he served. There is no written evidence from this epoch on this never completed building. The temple also has a courtyard surrounded by columns with 10 large royal statues on its sides. Already during the antiquity the figure was restored several times. Occupied are the first works, the Thutmosis IV. (1500 BC) run.

Later pharaohs came to this place to legitimize their power. Amenhotep II had another temple built here, Tutankhamun built a rest house. Numerous found stelae attest to the visit of many important personalities of the country.